Winter Warfare: Red Army Orders and Experiences (Soviet (Russian) Study of War)
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Based on German and Soviet military archival material, this book provides an insight into the tactics and planning for combat in a winter climate. It also studies the mechanisms for change in an army during the course of battle.
The first part of the book looks at the tactical pamphlet 'People's Commissar for Defence Order No. 109', as passed by Red Army units on 4 March 1941, which provided regulations for combat in Winter. The second part of the book, using material from the Soviet military archives, reveals Red Army General Staff supplements to the winter regulation.
Avoid treating personnel with water when applying first aid for gas/chemical-induced illnesses. 88. Gas and air alarm signals prove more difficult to recognize in winter. Therefore, increase the number of chemical observation and warning posts . In some cases a special warning detachment must be established. ANTITANK DEFE NSE 89. When the snow depth is under 50 centimeters antitank guns operate under normal rules of conduct. Owing to snow drifts and faults in the hard crust, vine layers, gorges
climatic conditions are as tough an adversary as a human enemy for soldiers who struggle to survive on the battlefield . The most relentless and unforgiving of climatic conditions is the deadly grip of subzero winter cold, which requires extra preparation of men and equipment. Cold temperatures reduce the efficiency of men and machines; severe cold kills soldiers and breaks weapons. Soldiers have two defenses against subzero conditions: the provision of sheltered heating and warm clothing.
to all men and officers. At each opportunity thermos bottles must be filled with hot drinks. All soldiers must be furnished with foot warmers. 225. The ski unit must be furnished with a certain amount of spare skis, laces and poles, depending upon the duration of their commitment and the length of the reserve routes. 226. Allow no casualties to fall into the hands of the enemy. To transport the sick and wounded, the ski unit must be furnished with special ski-sled structures and sledges. In
attack, violating all rules of interaction. 7. The coordination of artillery fire with mortar and infantry fire and assault and bombing activities of aviation in the defense and offense is poor. 8. Interaction in battle is usually violated from the moment of the commencement of the infantry attack. 9. Artillerymen still have not learned how to support infantry and tanks by fire over the entire depth of the battle. 10. There is no coordination in the activities of artillery and infantry in holding
offensive winter campaign resulted in a number of victories in gaining territory and inflicting heavy casualties on the German army. However, the operations did not lead to major annihilation of German army groupings, and the front stabilized until the spring-summer operations ofl942. The Soviet study of the first winter experience concludes that the basic reason for the cessation of Soviet victories was shortcomings in troop control, primarily in the coordination of units. As different aspects